Nutrition

Nutrition is acquiring the right category of food to ensure good health and growth. Nutrition is significant for growth and fitness of health because without good nutrition a person’s immune system gets weak. Nutrition defines an investigation of the choice of diets that people prefer, and presents the common diseases that poor nutrition cause. Poor nutrition is always linked with reduced fertility and the occurrence of malnutrition in the health of humans. Good nutrition consists of foods rich in minerals and vitamins, carbohydrates, roughages, proteins. Minerals include iron and calcium, which help the body control body fluids to and from body cells, develop strong bones and turn the consumed food to energy. Good nutrition includes dairy foods, cereals, fruits and vegetables, meat and fish. Carbohydrates provide starch to the body and they include rice, pasta, corn, potatoes, cassava and yams. Proteins help in the functioning, structure and regulation of body organs and tissues, and they include fish, beans, meant, eggs and milk. Roughages, on the other hand, do not add nutrients to food, but are essential in the proper functioning of the intestines. My diet is better than just to eat well plate diet, because it does not necessarily supply for my nutritional needs. Below is a table that shows my personal food diary.

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Day 4

Day 5

Day 6

Day 7

7:00 am- Bread and milk

7:00 am- Eggs and Juice

7:00 am- Fresh Vegetable Juice

7:00 am- Bread and Milk

7:00 am- Cereals

7:00 am- Eggs and Juice

7:00 am- Fresh vegetable Juice

10:00 am- Cereals

10:00 am- Fruit salad

10: 00 am- Milk Shake

10:00 am- Cereals

10:00 am- Fresh juice

10:00 am- Yoghurt

Fruit Salad

1:00 pm- Meat with Pasta and a glass of water

1:00 pm- Mashed potatoes with Beans and a glass of water

1:00 pm- Rice with Green Peace and a glass of water

1:00 pm- Bread with Vegetables and a glass of water

1:00 pm- Mashed potatoes with Green Peace and a glass of water

1:00 pm- Pasta with Kales and a glass of water

1:00 pm-Bread with Beans and a glass of water

4:00 pm- Fruit salad

4:00 pm- Snacks

4:00 pm- Fruit Salad

4:00 pm- Yoghurt

4:00 pm- Fruit Salad

4:00 pm- Snacks

4:00 pm- Yoghurt

7:00 pm- Rice with Beans and a glass of water

7:00 pm- Bread with Vegetables and a glass of water

7:00 pm- Pasta with Fish and a glass of water

7:00 pm- Rice with Beans and a glass of water

7:00 pm- Bread with Chicken and a glass of water

7:00 pm- Pasta with Fish and a glass of water

7:00 pm- Mashed Potatoes with Fish and a glass of water

Digestion

During absorption of food, different body parts are involved to ensure proper breakdown of food particles. The National Digestive Disease Information Clearinghouse argued that the stomach does not absorb food but contains enzymes that help break down food particles, such that nutrients can move down to the GI tract, which is the main area for absorption. The stomach only releases food to the small intestines after mixing and churning it slowly. Solid foods take longer than liquids to move from the stomach. The small intestine consists of jejunum, duodenum and ileum where absorption occurs. The duodenum takes in minerals, carbohydrates and proteins for absorption, while the remaining food particles in form of starch or proteins move to the jejunum. The ileum then absorbs fat, fat-soluble vitamins and amino acids. The large intestine consists of the rectum, cecum and colon. When food reaches the large intestines, full absorption takes place, and there are only waste products left. The colon absorbs the remaining sodium, potassium and water. Roughages, on the other hand, are not digestible, but add bulk to the large intestine, which help it to function properly. When digesting food, the pancreatic enzymes have digestive juice that is endohydrolase. The trypsin enzyme is always in its inactive form (trypsnogen), where the removal of hexapeptide activates it through the process of enterokinase of intestinal mucosa. The activated trypsin then digests the incomplete digested food particles from the stomach. The process follows a protocol such as,

Trypsnogen ---> Trypsi----> Hexapeptide----> Trypsin + Chymotrypsin-------Protease +peptose + peptides----peptides pH-7.5.

This means that in the case a blocked Pancreatic duct, the enzymes cannot digest food particles, hence no passing of stool causing the Steatorrhoea disease.

The Liver Functions

It is in the right upper side of the abdominal cavity at the top of the stomach and intestines. The liver has the shape of cone, weighs 3 pounds approximately and is reddish brown in color. It has two supply sources including the hepatic artery that transports oxygenated blood, and the hepatic portal vein that transports nutrient-rich blood. This organ is unique, because it can restore itself. The liver has several functions, such as producing bile to help break down fats during digestion. This is through changing the levels of chemical and using the bile that carries all waste products from it. It produces proteins for the blood plasma, cholesterol to carry fats through the body and changes glucose to glycogen then later turns it to energy through the bile. In addition to this, this organ processes the iron content into the hemoglobin, regulates clotting of blood and removes bacteria from the bloodstream by processing the blood nutrients into simpler forms for the body. The by-products of the liver are moved to the blood or bile after it has removed bacteria in the bloodstream. The bile then releases the by-products into the intestine which releases them in form of waste or urine. The table below shows the anatomy and functions of the liver.

In exactly which part of the body is the liver?

In the right upper side of the abdominal cavity, and on top of the stomach, right kidney and intestines.

Which other internal organs lie very close to the liver?

Right kidney

How would you describe the shape of the liver?

Cone like

What is the name given to an individual liver cell?

Lobule

What is the purpose of bile that is made by the liver?

Carries away waste products from the liver

In what other small organ does the liver send bile for temporary storage?

Intestine

Explain in your own words how the liver processes proteins and amino acids in the body.

It produces proteins for blood plasma and regulates the levels of blood for amino acids, which form blocks for these proteins hence ensuring proper blood regulation to other body parts

The liver is a vital organ in the body’s metabolism- in your own words, explain what is meant by the term metabolism

Metabolism can simply mean a functional system

The liver has an important role in processing waste products- explain how it deals with toxins and medicines in the body.

The liver produces immune factors that remove bacteria from the blood and releases the by-products in the bile, which then releases them to the intestines

Internal Organs

The table below shows the names and functions of internal organs as portrayed in the diagrams 1, and 2.

Organ or Structure

Name

Details of structure and/or Function

A

Oesophagus

Contains the the lower esophageal sphincter and the hiatus

B

Gall Bladder

Tissue type here is the columnar epithelial lining

C

Common Bile Duct

Tissue type here is the lymphoid type

D

Pancreas

Nutrients digested here are insulin and glucagon

E

Transverse Colon

Main nutrient digested here is water

F

Ascending Colon

Main process here is water resorbed then eliminated into drier residues in form of feaces

G

Cecum

This is the first part of the large intestines

H

Rectum

Main purpose is to extract moisture from food residues

I

Duodenum

Tissue types here are epithelial and goblet

J

Small Intestines

Main process occurring here is digestion

K

Epithelail tissue

Consists of membranos tissue

L

Pancreatic Duct

It is a passage for primary digestive enzymes

M

Stomach

Main nutrients processed here are proteins and carbohydrates

Chemical digestion is helped by a liquid called Chyme

Its lining is protected by a thick layer of a serous membrane

Mechanical digestion is helped here by pepsin, which breaks down protein into smaller polypeptides

N

Tongue

Mechanical digestion here is helped by the saliva produced by the body

O

Submandibular

Main tissues here are the glands

P

Salivary glands

Nutrients whose digestion start here are starch and vitamins

Enzyme produced here is mucus

Q

Trachea

Main types of cells here are capillaries and aorta wall

R

Renal Sinus

Main process occurring here nerve controlling

S

Hilum

Main function is to process the sound and the pass it to the larynx

The Kidneys

The kidneys are located at the back of the abdomen and are approximately 5 inches long. Kidneys have one main function, which is to filter the blood that the body passes through them daily with the aid of nephrons. In addition to this, they ensure body fluids and electrolytes balance. During the filtration of blood in the body, the kidneys produce urine. They then pass the urine to structures in the shape of funnels that drain tubes to the ureters called the kidney pelvis. Thereafter the urine is passed to the bladder, which releases it as poisonous waste. The kidneys if not well-cared for can cause several conditions in a person. Some of these conditions, such as infections on kidney pelvis and kidney stones are mild, while others, such as kidney cancer and kidney failure are severe. The kidney can only contain a small amount of fluids at the same time and so if there are more fluids in the body, they distribute it by releasing the waste fluids into the pelvis and leaving the nutrient-filled fluids in the body. This way, the body is able to release excess fluids for normal functioning. The kidney nephrons also help bring back potassium, sodium and phosphorus whenever the body runs low of them. Through the glomerulus and tubule in the nephrons, the kidney maintains the right amount of proteins in the blood. Below is a diagram of the kidneys and their parts.

The thicker arrows show the Proximal convoluted tubule and the Bowman’s capsule, which help in transporting iron in the body. They reabsorb more of the required body fluids and, at the same time, release the unwanted body fluids.

In conclusion, nutrition, digestion and excretion all have things in common in that one process cannot be successful without the success of another. For example, with poor nutrition, body parts will not be able to function properly, hence lowering their excretion rate. Each internal body organ is responsible for ensuring proper functioning of another, because they work together. From the digestive system to the excretion system, without proper diets to cater for good nutrition, the body organs are likely to fail in their functioning, because of a poor and weak immune system.

Reference List

  1. Simon, S 2005 б Guts: our digestive system. New York, HarperCollins Publishing.
  2. Spilsbury, L 2008, Digestion and excretion (human machine). London, UK, Heinemann Publications.
  3. Sizer, F, Whitney, E 2007, Nutrition: concepts and controversies. Belmont, CA,
  4. Cengage Learning Publications.
  5. Sizer, F, Whitney, E 2011, Nutrition: concepts and controversies, my plate update. Belmont, CA, Cengage Learning Publications.
  6. Taylor-Butler, C 2008, The digestive system (true books). New York, Random House Children's Books.
Jun 28, 2018 in Health Category