Introduction

Insulin release and consequent sensitivity are interdependent. Moreover, there are scanty practical evidences that evaluate these characteristics of insulin release and sensitivity despite it being influential in the cause of diabetes, a disorder that depicts increased or reduced sugar levels. However, the glucose tolerance test is essential in evaluating insulin release and sensitivity, which diagnoses the ability of the body to control blood sugar, a diagnostic mode of the disease. Diabetes is a disorder resulting from inability of the body to control blood sugar levels at optimum levels. Insulin is the hormone that is responsible for control of blood sugar levels (Winter & Winter, 2007).  The pathophysiology of diabetes clearly identifies Type 1 diabetes caused by lack of insulin, while Type 2 is results from insulin resistance. These types of diabetes result in hyperglycemia, a condition depicted by decreased uptake of glucose by the cells and a consequent decrease in protein catabolism.

Conventionally, diabetes was believed to be genetic. This still holds up to the contemporary postulates, however, research conducted indicates new forms of causal agents. For instance, Type 1 diabetes is caused by lack of insulin production due to destruction of pancreatic beta cells, while the Type 2 is caused by impairment in insulin secretion. This is due to metabolism of visceral fats that lead to production of cytokines (Aubert, 1995).

The major symptoms of diabetes include polyuria, a condition characterized by dehydration due to increased blood sugar levels. The disease is also depicted from polydipsia, a condition characterized by loss of weight and fatigue. In some cases, gestational diabetes result due to resistance of insulin due to human placental hormones. This implies that there is a close correlation between insulin secretion, metabolism of glucose and infection of related diseases especially diabetes.

Insulin is a hormone that controls the blood sugar level through deterioration of the beta-blockers, thus obscuring metabolism of carbohydrates. Carbohydrate metabolism happens either in the presence of oxygen, which is known as aerobic respiration, while respiration in the absence of oxygen is known as anaerobic respiration. The common difference is in the amount of ATP energy produced. Moreover, they both result in production of sugar, which alters the osmotic potential of cells that influence water absorption. This could result in diseases such as diabetes. This implies that insulin is vital for control of the blood sugar. In high blood sugar levels, insulin is secreted from the pancreas to aid in absorption of glucose. Conversely, in low blood sugar levels, glucagon aids the liver to release glucose stored to increase the level.

Several practical aspects aid in the study of the capabilities of the body to control the blood sugar level. This is useful for diagnosis of complications such as diabetes. For instance, the oral glucose tolerance test, which involves test of the blood sugar, levels of a patient at various intervals after administration of oral glucose (Ronzio, 2003). The trend gives the changes in the blood sugar, whose comparison might assess viability of diabetes if there are deviations from the normal. This is through determination of the two hour post load plasma concentration, where values above 200mg/dl predicts diabetes mellitus, while a value lower than 200mg/dl shows impaired glucose tolerance (Ronzio, 2003).

Artificial sweeteners are either non-caloric or sugar alcohols that impact on the final levels of sugar in the body. Their ingestion is beneficial especially for persons with cases of low blood sugar. They are advantageous as they help to induce instant sugar into the blood. The aim of the experiment is to study the association between the blood sugar levels; through glucose tolerance test, as a contributory factor to the cause of diabetes.

Methodology

This involved measurement of the glucose level of a subject before the start of the experiment. The patient was then put on an oral glucose tolerance test. This involved administration of a measured amount of glucose to the subject. The blood of the subject was then retested at consistent intervals to ascertain the level of blood sugar. The most important considerations during the experiment were that the glucose load was 75g for pregnant adults. The subject also needed a fasting period of 10-16 hours before ingestion of the glucose samples. The blood samples tested included the whole blood and the blood plasma, both containing the clotting factors i.e. fibrinogen, while the control experiment involved use of blood serum without the clotting factors. The results were then tabulated in form of the level of glucose in blood against time. During the entire experiment, the patient was to take water only as a subsidy to the daily feeding program in order to avoid more inducement of starch into blood.

Results

The 2-hour post load for plasma glucose was 200mg/dl for diabetes mellitus, while that for impaired glucose tolerance gave a 2-hour post load plasma concentration of between 140-190 mg/dl. The results were tabulated with the measured levels of glucose against the time interval. It shows the average values of moving averages of the blood sugar levels after intake of the measured amount of glucose. This also represents the ANOVA analysis method, where correlation table gives skewness levels at peaks once the action of the hormone has taken place. Essentially, it is an oscillating graph with peak points being the highest levels of blood sugar.

The values above are the real values from the experimental data. There are other several results apart from the above but the major reason for choice of only one column is to show the trend. The other trends are also consistent with this, where a higher value precedes a lower value of the level of glucose in blood. It is also evident that the blood sugar level increases after oral examination of glucose. The subsequent levels of glucose in blood are due to a self regulation mechanism, which tries to regulate the level at optimal levels.

Discussions

It is observable from the results that the level of glucose increases due to oral examination of glucose. This is then followed by a subsequent fall in the level. The increase of glucose in the blood is due to breakdown of the glucose molecules through the process of respiration. The process might be in presence of air, which is aerobic respiration or in the absence of oxygen, which is termed anaerobic respiration. The glucose induced into blood quickly converts into pyruvic acid where there are enzyme catalyzed processes that result in production of ATP energy in the mitochondria. This characterizes the aerobic respiration process, while the anaerobic respiration process involves formation of pyruvic acid through the process of glycolysis in the cystosol. The major difference is in the amount of energy produced. Aerobic respiration leads to formation of more energy.

The process of respiration results in increased sugar levels in blood. However, these sugar levels have to remain within optimum levels for the right osmotic potential of cells. If the sugar levels were to increase linearly without a mode of control, it would result in high osmotic potential of cells. This would lead to water molecules been drawn into the cells thus rupturing due to osmotic pressure.

The forces that lead to reduction on the level of sugar are as a result of release of insulin, a hormone that enhances uptake of glucose reserves by cells and muscles thus lowering the level of blood sugar. This is a naturally triggered process that works in response to high blood sugar levels, where the beta-islet cells of the pancreas secrete insulin to counter the effect of high blood sugar. This culminates in a subsequent lower level in the amount of sugars present in the blood of the subject.

After the forces of countering the effect of high glucose in blood display the response of lower levels, they might lower the sugar levels to below optimum. This has an effect in that it reduces the osmotic potential of the cells. This would result in the loss of water by the cells since the solution outside the cells has more of the solute solution and thus has more osmotic potential compared with that of the cells.  This causes water molecules to move from cells thus leading to cell crenation this would affect the final activity of cells, which is a condition associated with diabetes. The alpha cells in the pancreas act in response to this situation by releasing glucagon, a hormone responsible for conversion of stored fats into sugars. This results in increase in blood sugar level. This is the reason behind the subsequent increase in the level of sugar after the fall. This process repeats itself at specified impulses; although the average levels of sugar level in the subject is on a decreasing trend since some sugars are consumed in terms of energy needed for respiration. This also explains why the resultant experimental figures are on a decreasing trend. The first glucose induced into the subject results in the highest levels at the start of the experiment. However, these levels continue to decrease as the energy is reused for respiration.

            This trend of moving averages is vital in depicting the natural osmoregulation of the body cells. It is also prove to incidences of complications. For instance, patients with diabetes do not have these automated responses to counter the effects of sugar levels. For instance, on intake of oral glucose, the patient as a subject would record an increase in the blood sugar. However, these levels would continue to increase anonymously, resulting in increased osmotic potential of the cells leading to intake of water and a consequent burst, a condition known as hypoglycemia. The absorbed water would result in the bursting of the blood cells, reducing their efficiency. This condition is characterized by muscle cramps and fatigue (Naigaonkar, 2008).

Moreover, the water might aid in dilution of the sugars while some might be broken down to form energy for respiration. This would lead to lower subsequent level in the level of sugar in examination of the subject after the stipulated time. In consideration, the patient would record a lower sugar level than the previous record. However, the natural system of the patient as a subject would not control the level. Instead, the sugars will get depleted to amounts lower than the optimum. The resultant effect is that the cells would loose their osmotic potential leading to loss of water. This is a condition known as hyperglycemia, which is characterized by dizziness and increased appetite.

Conclusion

 A normal body capable of glucose tolerance regulates the body sugar levels within the optimum levels. In the experiment, the values of the blood sugar level form an oscillating graph of blood sugar level against time in the oral glucose tolerance test, where there is an alternating trend between increase and decrease in the blood sugar level of the subject (McClatchey, 2002). From the ANOVA values of moving averages of the sugar content in blood, it is evident that there is a deviation from the normal for diabetic blood, where the graph of sugar level against time does not oscillate, but forms a linear graph with an inclination from the x-axis. This shows that the body of the subject is unable to regulate the blood sugar level. Moreover, in circumstances where there is either only one increasing or decreasing trend, then the general system of the body is not capable of regulating its own sugar.  This regulation is initiated by both insulin and glucagon, which are secreted from the beta and alpha cells in the pancreas respectively. The hormones help to control the glucose levels in the blood although they work in reverse processes. The possible source of error for this experimental analysis is in observation of measuring apparatus.

Feb 9, 2018 in Review Category